(A) Introduction: Small Scale Commercial Developments should implement projects with an overall community design in mind, thus the need exists for Commercial Design Standards to be in place to ensure developments are coordinated into the overall community presentation.
(B) Background and Justification: The basis for all development within the City of Menan is set forth in the Development Code and the Comprehensive Plan. The Development Code for the City of Menan states that the purpose of the Ordinance is to promote the general welfare by establishing and regulating zoning districts. These standards require a basic level of architectural variety, compatible scale, pedestrian and bicycle access, and mitigation of negative impacts.
(C) Procedure: The following standards are intended to be used as a design aid by developers proposing small commercial developments and as an evaluation tool by the city staff and planning commission in their review processes. These standards shall apply to all projects, which are processed according to the criteria for proposed development plans and to all projects for commercial establishments of 13,999 square feet or less located in the City's commercial zones. These standards are to be used in conjunction with other City and County Development Regulations.
(D) DESIGN STANDARDS
(1) SITE PLANNING
Building should be sited in a manner that preserves existing land forms.
Natural landforms are important in creating the appeal and the special character of Menan. The objective is to fit buildings to their sites in a way that leaves natural massing and features of the landscape intact. The most prominent parts of the sites should be left in their natural condition. In general construction should be placed in one of three locations:
1. within tree masses,
2. at the edge of tree land masses or over looking open space or,
3. in such a way to preserve the predominate features of the site.
The object is to scale each building so that it does not dominate the site.
r STANDARD #1 Building shall be located in such a way as to preserve predominate features of the site and not dominate the building site.
New construction should be compatible with existing adjacent buildings and uses. When planning new construction, analyze the setting for the new building. Look at the siting and mass of other good examples of buildings in the neighborhood. Notice the setbacks, heights, parking arrangements and building shapes. Observe the building forms and materials of surrounding buildings. Be aware of the elements that are repeated nearby, such as certain roof pitches, window shapes and porch and entrance orientations. Notice how building materials such as shingle siding and window trim have traditionally been used. New construction should blend with the neighborhood. Consider the relationship of color, texture, and materials between existing and proposed structures as well as height, bulk and configuration. Relate the location of site uses with adjoining properties to avoid possible conflicts and take advantage of mutual potentials. For example, do not create light, noise, traffic, or use nuisances for adjacent properties. In the downtown core (Villiage District), these standards will be a requirement.
r STANDARD #2 New construction shall be compatible with existing adjacent buildings and uses.
r Building Form
r Site Layout and Coordination
r Entrance Orientation
r Building Materials Compatibility
r Blend with Neighborhood
r Building Color and Context
r Traffic Impacts
r Nuisance Generation Potential
r Must Utilize Full Cut Off Lighting
Buildings should be sited in a manner that preserves significant vegetation. New construction and landscaping shall respect and be compatible with natural vegetative patterns. Consult the Landscape and Site Design Section on page 18 for additional discussion.
r STANDARD #3 New construction shall not negatively impact significant vegetation and be compatible with natural vegetative patterns.
GUIDELINE #4 Buildings should be sited in a manner that preserves significant views.
Views from three vantage points are critical in the siting of buildings. Looking at the site from other areas, looking at other areas from the site and looking through the site from key places within the project. The City's primary concerns relate to maintaining views both to the site and features beyond. Projects should be designed so they complement rather than dominate the natural landscape. Views should also be considered in the preparation of a landscape plan, particularly where plant material will be considerably larger at maturity. Onsite simulation of accurate photographic simulations may be required that adequately describe the proposals impact on views.
r STANDARD #4 Buildings shall be sited with an orientation so as to preserve and protect the streetscape of the community. Buildings shall not destroy or negatively impact significant views or visual resources in the community.
GUIDELINE #5 Buildings should be sited so that their form does not break prominent skylines.
Skylines are considered to be ridges or hilltops that do not have backdrops behind them. Buildings which are silhouetted against skylines as seen from prominent places give the town a sense of confinement which detracts from the natural mountain atmosphere.
r STANDARD #5 Buildings shall not be constructed so as to negatively impact skylines ridges or hilltops.
Site design should not change natural drainage patterns.
Site grading should be sensitive to existing land forms and topography in the area so that the natural setting may be preserved to the greatest extent possible. Every effort shall be made to minimize the limits of construction on the site. Abrupt grade changes within tree drip lines shall be avoided. When modifications are necessary, surface drainage systems such as swales and retention basins are preferable to underground systems. Drainage designs should avoid the concentration or runoff and acceleration of the area or runoff. Site design shall be executed in a way that will avoid drainage impacts such as erosion and road damage both on-site as well as downstream. Slopes shall be no steeper than 3- to-1 unless qualified soils engineering information is presented. Cuts and fills should have good surface drainage and must be re-vegetated and terraced or controlled by retaining walls to protect against erosion and sedimentation.
r STANDARD #6 Site design shall not negatively impact natural drainage patterns. A drainage plan must be submitted as part of site plan approval.
The clustering of buildings and parking is encouraged.
Cooperation among adjoining landowners to achieve coordinated development is encouraged. Efficiencies in design result from building clustering in larger projects Service needs can be combined in a central location. Access roads and utility services to scattered areas within a site can be reduced and disruption of the natural landforms and vegetation can be minimized through clustering. Building clustering also generally results in a visually more cohesive design solution. Clustering can also provide more usable open space.
r STANDARD #7 Where possible developments shall cluster buildings and parking lots. Parking lots shall include landscape islands and pedestrian separation so as to avoid a "sea of asphalt" that is not in scale to development. A basic landscape plan must be submitted as part of site plan approval.
The alignment of roads and driveways should follow the contours of the site.
By meandering roads to follow landforms it is possible to minimize cuts and fills, preserve natural drainage patterns, and produce roads that are easily negotiated. Consideration should be given to the winter weather that stays with Menan for several months a year. Planned roads need to provide connectivity to existing city streets. Slopes shall not be in excess of 7%.
r STANDARD #8 Road development shall conform with the contours of the site and avoid unneeded fill and cut. Roads shall not create grades in excess of 7% and shall provide connectivity to existing city streets.
Retaining walls must be designed to minimize their impact on the site. Retaining walls, where visible to the public and/or to residents or employees of the project, should be no higher than four feet or terraced with a three foot horizontal separation of walls. They should be constructed of materials that are utilized elsewhere on the site, or of natural or decorative materials, rather than solid or flat surface. Landscaping should be provided within or in front of extensive retaining walls. Retaining walls should add rather than detract to the appearance of the site.
r STANDARD #9 Retaining walls shall be designed to minimize negative impact on the site.
Snow storage areas should be incorporated into site design. Storage areas for snow removed from driveways and parking lots should be provided on-site. These sites may be landscaped areas with salt tolerant and resilient plant materials that can cope with the urban environment. It is not permissible to plow snow from private property onto public streets. Snow storage should be accommodated in a way that does not block visibility for motorists. If sites are intensely developed it may be necessary for tenants to remove snow from the site and find a disposal location.
r STANDARD #10 At least 15% of the equivalent area of a parking lot shall be set aside for snow storage and shall be integrated into the open space areas on a site plan in accordance with the policy outlined above. This area must be calculated, located, and shown specifically on the site plan.
Roof design should anticipate snow shedding and drip line areas. Roof pitches should be designed so that falling or melting snow or ice, or rain will not threaten human safety or comfort, or property. Do not place walkways, entries, decks, or landscaping where they will be damaged by falling/sliding snow. Consider whether the roofing material and pitch will hold or release snow. If buildings are spaced too closely together snow sliding off a roof may damage adjacent structures. Building designers should familiarize themselves with problems common to the upper valley environment, such as ice damming, roof loading, and snow accumulation against walls. All walkways and entries should be protected from rain drip by gabled coverings, appropriate roof pitch, or gutters.
r STANDARD #11 Building design and layout shall consider the snow shed and drip lines in regards to the following:
r Human Safety
r Snow accumulations against walls
Consider sun in exterior space to avoid creating cold unpleasant exterior areas. The objective is to create exterior spaces around buildings that will be used and also that will be easy to keep clear for access to buildings. In the winter, places that are mostly in shadow will be cold and unusable while places in sunlight will get used. Things to bear in mind: buildings, vegetation and land forms can cast shadows and block sunlight; the surface of a building can play a big role in reflecting sunlight into adjoining exterior spaces; color and choice of materials are important in this regard.
r STANDARD #12 Building design shall consider the impact of creating cold exterior spaces.
Site design should consider the placement and screening of service areas and auxiliary structures. Utility meters and service functions shall not be visible on the primary facades of buildings or in front yard areas. Minimize the visual impact of trash storage and pickup areas. Screen trash and service areas with landscaping, berming or fencing. Provide three-sided enclosures for trash collection areas visible from any public street. Consider snow accumulation in planning access to trash receptacles and service areas.
STANDARD #13 Site design must consider the placement and screening of service areas and auxiliary structures. Outdoor vending machines shall not directly face any public street. Vending machines shall not be internally illuminated if clearly visible from any public street.
Minimize the visual impact of off-street parking and loading areas. This is sometimes referred to as "Eyes from the Street" or what does the proposal present to the viewer as seen from the frontage?
r STANDARD #14 Primary parking areas shall be located to the rear or sides of buildings. In the design of large parking areas, arrange bays of stalls which are separated by landscaping. Design the landscaping to provide snow storage areas in the winter. When parking lots occur on sloping terrain, step the parking lots to follow the terrain rather than allowing the lot surface to extend above natural grade. Loading areas shall facilitate deliveries with little visual impact to other users of the area. When loading areas and docks cannot be located in a segregated area of the building it must be screened or buffered to de-emphasize the docks location and the trucks that perform the deliveries. Sufficient truck storage shall be maintained on-site to allow efficient delivery service without conflicts while that service is being performed.
On-site parking should be designed to allow vehicles forward entry and exit from the site. Parking design that proposes the use of the street frontage as the approach for each parking stall are discouraged. Developing a single approach helps confine vehicular/pedestrian conflict to limited locations, allows more buffering of the parking area and can preserve the street frontage for pedestrian traffic.
r STANDARD #15 On-site parking shall be designed to allow vehicles forward entry and exit from the site.
Conflicts between different circulation needs and uses should be minimized. There are three major types of circulation used in most development settings. They are service/delivery, clientele or general automobile, and pedestrian. The designer should identify location where these activities take place and make clear separation between the uses. These circulation patterns should be connected to the general circulation patterns legibly and conflict free. Consideration should be given to off-site uses that will effect onsite circulation. Delivery trucks should be able to operate without blocking public rights-of way. Pedestrians should be able to access the development from existing pedestrian walkways with little or no traffic conflict. Drop off zones large enough for buses are encouraged in major developments.
r STANDARD #16 Conflicts between different circulation needs and uses shall be minimized. Delivery trucks shall be able to operate without blocking public rights-of way. Pedestrians shall be able to access the development from existing pedestrian walkways with little or no traffic conflict. Drop off zones large enough for buses are required in major developments.
GUIDELINE #17 Building designs should enhance and/or continue the classic styles found in old town Menan. New interpretations of historic details may be introduced.
STANDARD #17 Building designs shall enhance and/or continue the classic styles found in old town Menan.
GUIDELINE #18 Building designs should attempt to minimize the apparent scale of buildings. The use of the human scale can help to create the small town feeling and enhance the "sense of place". Some of the ways this can be achieved is by utilizing voids and masses, as well as details, textures, and colors on building facades. Flat roofed buildings over two stories in height should incorporate roof elements, or upper decks, balconies or other design elements where the upper portion of the building is stepped or angled back, in order to avoid a boxy appearance. Another way is to define the human area by structural elements like colonnades and covered walkways, overhangs, canopies, entries, landscaping, berms, and screening walls, creating interest at the street level. Human scale is accomplished by maintaining the interest at a smaller scale and defining those spaces. Buildings that are not human scale are structures that are typically massive, simple forms with little or no variation of voids -vs.- mass and little or no fenestration and detail. Such buildings are discouraged. A large building can be human scale with the use of the elements listed above. Human scale buildings create a comfortable and friendly atmosphere. Doors, windows, roof shapes, siding, lighting, and signs should all be considered carefully in order to create an appropriate scale of development. The natural appeal of Menan will be enhanced through the addition of buildings which complement rather than dominate the landscape.
STANDARD #18 Building designs shall minimize the apparent scale of buildings. Flat roofed buildings over two stories in height shall incorporate roof elements, or upper decks, balconies or other design elements where the upper portion of the building is stepped or angled back, in order to avoid a boxy appearance. Doors, windows, roof shapes, siding, lighting, and signs shall all be considered carefully in order to create an appropriate scale of development.
GUIDELINE #19 Any addition to an existing building should be designed to appear as though it were part of the original building, or appropriately designed to enhance the original building. Additions should carry through rooflines, materials, colors, and/or other architectural features that are primary features of the original building. Alternatively, the original building may be altered to appear to be an extension of the new building, in order to achieve the goals of these guidelines.
STANDARD #19 Any addition to an existing building shall be designed to appear as though it were part of the original building, or appropriately designed to enhance the original building. Additions shall carry through rooflines, materials, colors, and/or other architectural features that are primary features of the original building.
GUIDELINE #20 Rooflines of buildings should be designed to be compatible with building forms that enhance the character of the City.
STANDARD #20 Buildings shall coordinate roofline design and structure to complement adjacent properties.
GUIDELINE #21 Mechanical equipment and solar panels on roofs should be hidden or de- emphasized so that it is not readily visible from nearby properties.
Roof to access, stairways, elevator shafts, vent shafts, mechanical equipment areas, antennae, etc., should be confined with the new roof of within roof dormers and shall not protrude from the roof to form awkward looking appurtenances. Skylights and solar panels must be designed to fit flush with the roofs surface of up to a maximum of 2' above the roof's surface. No reflective materials may be used unless thoroughly shielded to prevent reflection onto adjoining or nearby properties. The use of alternate energy sources is encouraged, however, the hardware associated with these features should be incorporated as an integral part of the building's design rather than as an add-on which detracts from the building and its surroundings.
STANDARD #21 Mechanical equipment and solar panels on roofs must be hidden or de-emphasized so that it is not readily visible from nearby properties.
Roof to access, stairways, elevator shafts, vent shafts, mechanical equipment areas, antennae, etc., shall be confined with the new roof or within roof dormers and shall not protrude from the roof to form awkward looking appurtenances. Reflective materials shall be thoroughly shielded. The use of alternate energy source hardware shall be incorporated as an integral part of the building's design.
GUIDELINE #22 Multi-unit structures should emphasize the individuality of units or provide visual interest by variations in rooflines or walls, or other human scale elements. The small scale of the historic residences and shops is an important characteristic of Menan. Breaking the facades and roofs of buildings softens the institutional image, which may often accompany large buildings. The form and massing of Menan's original buildings, but not building details, may provide direction for the form and massing of new buildings.
STANDARD #22 Multi-unit structures shall emphasize the individuality of units or provide visual interest by variations in rooflines or walls, or other human scale elements. Facades and roofs of buildings shall be broken up so as to avoid long uninterrupted edge surface, which often accompanies large buildings.
GUIDELINE #23 Balconies and porches like other wall features should be designed as interesting architectural features.
STANDARD #23 The use of long, vertical, or horizontal balconies or horizontal bands of balcony space is not allowed. Balconies shall be designed to prevent snow accumulation, interior leaks, and icicle buildup and shall be located so that neither snow nor ice falling on or from them can endanger pedestrians.
GUIDELINE #24 Doors should be located in a manner that complements the design of the building as well as serving their intended function. Excessive numbers of exterior doorways may give a building a dormitory-like character. The use of common entry ways in protected locations may also contribute to energy efficiency. Where possible, doors should open onto exterior areas which receive sunlight.
STANDARD #24 Doors shall be located to complement design of the building as well as serve intended function. Where possible, doors shall open onto exterior areas which receive sunlight.
GUIDELINE #25 Building should be constructed of wall materials that are similar in texture and finish to those found historically in Menan. The use of natural materials such as wood, brick, and stone is encouraged. Wall materials should convey a sense of human scale and warmth. Stones should be laid in a manner that conveys the appearance of a structural element rather than as a veneer facing.
STANDARD #25 Building shall be constructed of wall materials that are similar in texture and finish to those found historically in Menan. The use of natural materials such as wood, brick, and stone is required and should complement other materials. Wall materials shall convey a sense of human scale and warmth. Stones shall be laid in a manner that conveys the appearance of a structural element.
GUIDELINE #26 Shop front design should be simple and direct and depend mainly on views of the interior of the shop and merchandise for interest. It is recommended that consideration be given to protecting shop views from the elements by providing arcades, porches, or overhangs. Signage must be designed to complement the building design, scale and coordinate with other tenants. Shop fronts should avoid gimmickry, garishness, and excessive ornamentation.
STANDARD #26 Shop front design shall be simple and direct and should provide arcades, porches, or overhangs. Signage shall be designed to complement the building design, scale and coordinate with other tenants. Shop fronts shall avoid gimmickry, garishness, and excessive ornamentation.
GUIDELINE #27 Exterior wall colors should harmonize with the site and surrounding buildings. On exterior walls the predominant tone should tend toward warm earthy hues, whether in the natural patina or weathered color of the wall surface itself or the color of the paint, stain or other coating. Accent colors on the wall surfaces can enliven buildings, however, their location would be confined to entries and gatherings points which do not disrupt the overall harmony of the area. Bright and dramatic color can be used for accent on exterior wall areas hidden from general view. In most cases only one or two accent colors should be used in addition to the base color. Doors may be painted a bright accent color or they may be left natural wood finish. Harshly contrasting color combinations should be avoided. Brilliant, luminescent, or day-glow colors will not be approved.
The colors found in the landscape around Menan, the dark green of cedar, the gray-brown of the desert hills, blue-green of the sagebrush and the tan of grasses all relate well to limestone, brick and lava masonry of Menan's historic construction. Color samples should be presented to the Commission on sample boards large enough to provide adequate representation. A color renderings of the front facade should also be presented.
STANDARD #27 Exterior wall colors shall harmonize with the site and surrounding buildings. On exterior walls the predominant tone shall tend toward warm earthy hues. Accent colors shall be confined to entries and gatherings points, which do not disrupt the overall harmony of the area. Bright and dramatic color can be used for accent on exterior wall areas hidden from general view. Doors shall be painted an accent color or they may be left natural wood finish. Harshly contrasting color combinations shall be avoided. Brilliant, luminescent, or day-glow colors are not allowed. Color samples shall be presented to the Commission on sample boards large enough to provide adequate representation. Color renderings of the front facade shall also be presented.