(A) CLEARING AND GRUBBING
(1) Clearing and grubbing shall consist of the removal and disposal of all organic and other deleterious material from the public right-of-way or private roadway easement. All material removed under clearing shall be disposed of off of the public right-of-way or private roadway easement.
(1) The sub grade shall consist of the natural materials remaining after all topsoil and duff (organic material) have been removed and good construction material is remaining. The determination of the extent to which topsoil shall be removed shall be left to the discretion of the City of Menan, who may require soil and compaction test results to document the acceptability for construction.
(2) In solid rock excavation, the solid rock shall be excavated to six inches (6") below the finished sub grade elevation and back-filled with approved granular materials.
(3) Unstable sub grade conditions shall be remedied by sub-excavation and back-filling with approved granular material under the direction of the City of Menan. Geotextile material may be required by the City of Menan.
(4) Sub grade shall be compacted to a density no less than ninety-five percent, (95%) of the AASHTO T-99 Proctor Density.
(5) The sub grade shall be observed by the Menan Public Works Director (or a designated representative) prior to placing any ballast on the sub grade. The Public Works Director must be given at least twenty-four (24) hours notice prior to the need for observation. Such 24 hours notice shall be given so that the observation can be made during the City of Menan's normal working hours and work week.
(6) Prior to requesting observation of the finished sub grade, grade stakes set to finished sub grade elevation shall be in place on fifty foot (50') stationing at centerline and shoulders or ditch, unless a waiver is granted by the City of Menan.
(C) SUB-BASE OR BALLAST
(1) Approved pit run material may be used for the ballast course, which shall be placed to a minimum of eighteen inches (18") in thickness. The material shall be durable, have a sand equivalent not less than 30, and shall meet the following gradations in Table 4:
(2) The ballast material shall be constructed in layers not to exceed nine inches (9") in thickness and shall be compacted using mechanical methods to at least ninety-five percent, (95%) of the AASHTO T -99 Proctor Density.
(3) Observation of the ballast is necessary by the City of Menan Public Works Director (or a designated representative) prior to the placing of base material. The City of Menan Public Works Director must have at least twenty-four (24) hours notice prior to the need for the observation. Such 24 hours notice shall be given so that the observation can be made during the City of Menan Road and Bridge Department's normal working hours and work week. Prior to requesting observation of the finished ballast, red top stakes set to finished ballast elevation, shall be in place on fifty foot (50') stationing at centerline and shoulders.
(4) All culvert installations crossing the highway or street shall be installed before any base material is placed. Installation should conform to Figure 6, "Typical Culvert Installation."
(D) BASE MATERIAL
(1) The crushed aggregate for the base course shall be four inches (4") in depth after it has been compacted and shall comply with the gradations listed in Table 5:
Table 5. Base Material Gradation
(2) The crushed aggregate base shall not show more than a toss of thirty-five percent (35%) under the Los Angeles Abrasion Test and the sand equivalent shall not be less than 30.
(3) The material shall be laid in one or more layers to develop the compacted depth of four inches (4") minimum. Material shall be mechanically compacted by rolling to ninety-five percent (95%) of the AASHTO T -99 Proctor Density. Care shall be taken to see that the aggregate is placed in such a manner that it will have uniform mixture throughout.
(4) The finished base material must be observed and approved by the City of Menan Public Works Director (or a designated representative) prior to placing the surface course. The City Public Works Director must be given notice twenty-four (24) hours prior to the observation. The observation must be completed during the City of Menan's normal working hours and work week.
(5) Prior to requesting observation of the finished base material, blue top stakes will be set to finished base elevations at fifty foot (50') stationing on curves and one hundred foot (100') stationing on tangents at centerline and shoulders.
(6) The surface of any base course, when finished, shall be such that when tested with a ten foot (10') straightedge placed on the surface with its centerline parallel to and perpendicular to the centerline of the street, the maximum deviation from the surface of the edge of the straight edge shall nowhere exceed 0.04 of a foot. In addition, the finished grade shall not deviate more that 0.05 of a foot at any point from the staked elevation. If asphalt concrete surfacing is to be placed on the base course, no portion of the complete surface of the base course shall be more than 0.04 of a foot below the edge of a straight ten feet (10') in length laid parallel to and perpendicular to the centerline of the roadway. In addition, the finished grade shall not deviate more that 0.03 of a foot at any point from the staked elevation. Should patching of the base course be necessary in order to meet tt19 above tolerances, it shall be performed using methods and aggregates approved by the City of Menan Public Works Director.
(1) The surface type shall be approved by the City of Menan, but can generally be considered one of two types: a hot mix asphalt concrete or a three shot asphalt chip surface.
(2) Equipment used for asphalt construction, regardless of the type of surface treatment, shall meet the following criteria for each type of equipment.
a. The bituminous mixture hauling trucks shall be pneumatic tired and equipped with a smooth-lined tight dump body free from cracks, holes or deep dents capable of hauling material without loss during transit. Dump body and gate shall be capable of control discharge onto the roadbed or into approved spreaders or pavers when required. The dump body shall be constructed or equipped to retain the heat of the mixture above the minimum specified for lay- down.
b. Motor graders shall be a pneumatic tired, self-propelled machine with sufficient power and traction and adequate wheelbase to efficiently perform the work.
c. Bituminous pavers shall be self-contained, power propelled units provided with an activated screed or strike-off assembly, heated if necessary, and capable of spreading and finishing courses of bituminous plant mix material in lane widths applicable to the specified typical section in thickness as shown on the plans. The paver shall be equipped with a receiving hopper having sufficient capacity for a uniform spreading operation. The hopper shall be equipped with a distribution system to place the mixture uniformly in front of the screed. The screed or strike-off assembly shall effectively produce a finished surface of the required smoothness and texture without tearing, shoving or gouging the mixture. The paver shall be capable of being operated when laying mixtures at forward speeds consistent with satisfactory laying of the mixture. The paver shall be in good working order and subject to the review of the City of Menan.
d. Rollers shall be of the pneumatic-tired, steel-wheeled or vibratory steel-wheeled type and shall be in good working order.
i. The pneumatic tired roller shall be of between 30-40 ton capacity, have seven wheels as a minimum with pneumatic tires of equal size and ply. Tires shall be uniformly inflated so that the air pressure of the several tires will not vary by more that five pounds per square inch. The rollers may be operated with tire inflation pressures and wheel needs within the range of the manufacturer's recommendations on the size and ply of tire being used. The wheels shall be staggered on the front and rear axles to provide complete coverage of the area on which the rollers travel. Rollers shall be capable of starting, stopping and reversing directions smoothly without jerking or backlash, and shall be equipped with positive accurate steering control. Wobble wheel rollers are prohibited for the compaction of paver-laid base or the final rolling of the last bituminous mixed course. When used to compact paver-laid asphalt, the rollers shall be equipped with smooth tread tires close fitting scrapers for each wheel and a system for uniformly washing the wheels without excessive water. Power units shall have adequate power and traction to move the roller at variable speeds under normal rolling conditions. The roller shall have an effective rolling width of not less than sixty inches (60").
ii. A smooth-faced steel wheel roller shall be of a two axle or three axle tandem design and when fully ballasted shall have a gross weight of eight tons or more, with no specified contact pressure. All smooth faced steel wheel rollers shall be self-propelled and capable of starting, stopping, and reversing directions smoothly without jerking or backlash. Rollers shall be equipped with positive accurate steering control. The face of all rollers shall be smooth and free from defects which will mar the surface of the material being compacted. Each wheel or roller shall be equipped with adjustable spring scrapers and a system shall be provided for uniformly moistening the full width of each roller or wheel without an excess of water. No diesel fuel is allowed on roller surfaces.
iii. Vibratory compactors of the roller type shall have a minimum width of sixty inches (60"), a minimum static load of sixty (60) pounds per inch of width and generate a minimum centrifugal force of 250 pounds per inch of width based on the manufacturer's rating. Compactors shall be operated in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations at a speed of two to five miles per hour.
e. The asphalt distributor must be in good working order and shall be designed and operated so a uniform application of asphalt can be applied. It must include a tachometer showing the feet per minute and the number of feet covered, a tank thermometer, and a gauge to measure the quantity of the asphalt in the distributor.
f. The aggregate spreader shall be a self-propelled machine independent of the truck, supported by at least two axles and four wheels with pneumatic tires and equipped with a means of applying cover material with positive controls so material will be uniformly deposited over the full width of the asphalt application.
(3) Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete:
a. The hot mix asphalt concrete surfacing may be used providing it meets the following requirements and is constructed under the direction of the project engineer.
b. The mix used for the hot mix asphalt concrete must be an approved asphalt mix design. Mix design characteristics must be submitted and approved by the City of Menan prior to its use.
c. The aggregate used in the asphalt concrete mix must meet the gradation in Table 6:
Table 6. Hot Mix Aggregate Gradation
It must have a Los Angeles Wear showing not greater than 30% loss, a Sand Equivalent greater than 40, and not have over 2%absorption. Not less than 60% by weight of the aggregate particles retained on the No. 4 sieve shall have at least two fractured faces.
d. The asphalt shall be an 85/100 type penetration or the equivalent AC-10. Performance based asphalt grades may be used if approved by the City of Menan.
e. The asphalt mix shall be laid only when the ambient air temperature is greater than 50 degrees Fahrenheit and rising and the mix is at a temperature not less than 235 degrees, nor more that 280 degrees Fahrenheit.
f. After lay-down by a paving machine, the mixture shall be thoroughly and uniformly compacted with power rollers. Rolling of the mix shall begin as soon after spreading as it will bear the roller without undue displacement or hairline cracking. Initial rolling shall be done longitudinally. The rollers shall overlap on successive trips. Alternate trips of the roller shall be slightly different lengths. Unless otherwise directed, the initial or breakdown rolling shall consist of one complete coverage of the paving mixture performed with a two-axle tandem roller. Initial breakdown rolling shall be followed by three complete coverages with a pneumatic-tired roller while the temperature of the mixture is at, or above 140 degrees Fahrenheit. The final rolling shall be performed by a three-axle steel- wheeled tandem roller. Rolling shall be performed in such a manner that cracking, shaving, or displacement shall be avoided. Final rolling shall be completed the same day the pavement is placed. Sufficient rollers shall be furnished to handle the output of the plant. Rolling shall continue until all rolling marks are eliminated, and the surface is of uniform texture and true to grade and cross section. To prevent adhesion of the mixture to the roller, the wheels shall be kept properly moistened. Excessive water will not be permitted on the roller surfaces. The use of diesel fuel on the roller surfaces is strictly prohibited. The final mat thickness after compaction shall be no less than the depth prescribed by the City of Menan Road Standards.
g. The completed Hot Mix asphalt concrete surface course shall have a field density equal to or greater than the percentages shown below:
i. Residential street section shall be a minimum of 95%.
ii. Industrial, arterial, or collector streets shall be 97%.
h. In residential street sections when utilizing a correlated nuclear densitometer used in the backscatter mode, the allowable tolerance ranges shall be:
i. A minimum of 92% at any test location.
ii. A minimum of 94% running average for any three consecutive tests.
iii. Three consecutive tests below the tolerance range will require corrective action.
iv. The average for all density tests for any residential street project will be 95%.
i. In arterial, collectors, and industrial sections, when utilizing a correlated nuclear densitometer in the backscatter mode, the allowable tolerance ranges will be:
i. A minimum of 93% at any test location.
ii. A minimum of 96% running average for any three consecutive tests.
iii. Three consecutive tests below the tolerance range will require corrective action.
iv. The average for all tests on any arterial, collector or industrial section of street or project shall be 97%.
j. The final surface shall be of a uniform texture and shall conform to line and grade shown on the plans. Before final acceptance of the project or during the progress of the work, the thickness of all courses will be determined by the City. Core samples of the completed asphalt will be provided by the applicant or contractor. All unsatisfactory work shall be repaired, replaced, or corrected.
k. Both density and thickness shall be carefully controlled during construction and shall be in full compliance with plans and specifications.
l. For the purpose of testing the surface on all courses, a ten foot (10') straightedge shall be used.
m. The straightedge shall be held in successive positions parallel and perpendicular to the street centerline in contact with the surface, and the entire areas checked from one side to the other. Advances along the pavement shall be in successive stages of not more than half the length of the straightedge.
n. Irregularities that may develop before the completion of rolling shall be remedied by loosening the surface mix and removing or adding materials as may be required. Any irregularities or defects which are found after the final rolling, which vary more than 0.02 of a foot in ten feet for surface courses, shall be corrected. All minor surface projections, joints, and minor honey-combed surfaces shall be repaired smooth to grade, as directed by the City of Menan Public Works Director.
(4) Triple Shot Asphalt Chip Surface
a. The triple shot asphalt and chip course shall be constructed under the direction of the City of Menan Public Works Director and shall consist of two applications of chip seal coats the first year and a third chip seal application a year later.
b. The previously placed base material shall be shaped and rolled using a tandem steel wheel roller prior to the application of the liquid asphalt coat. The ambient air temperature shall be at least 70 degrees Fahrenheit and rising at the time of the application of the asphalt.
c. Prior to the first seal coat the roadway shall be power broomed and/or flushed to remove all100se materials and dust. The type of liquid asphalt shall be MC-800, unless otherwise specified by the City of Menan Public Works Director. For the first seal coat, the MC-800 application rate shall be DAD gallons per square yard. The chips shall be road base chips following the Table 7 gradation requirements, or as otherwise approved by the City of Menan Public Works Director. Approved chips shall be applied with a chip spreader and rolled with a steel drum roller immediately behind the chip spreader. Application rate for chips shall be 25 - 30 pounds per square yard.
d. A second chip seal shall be placed on the roadway immediately but no later than 3 working days using the same specification listed on EA.c, except the MC-800 application rate may be reduced to 0.35 gallons per square yard.
e. A third chip seal shall be placed on the roadway the following year. The type of liquid asphalt may be MC-800 at an application rate of 0.35 gallons per square yard or CRSI1-R at an application rate of OA5 gallons per square yard. The chips shall be '%" Class 11 chip material (See Table 8), rolled with a pneumatic roller immediately behind the chip spreader. Also, the use of this arrangement will require an extension of or a second performance bond to be supplied to the City of Menan for covering the second year's work.
Table 7. Class II Chip Material Gradation
(F) OBSERVATION AND TESTING
(1) All required observation shall be done by the City of Menan Public Works Director (or a designated representative). All testing required in these standards or required by the City of Menan Public Works Director will be done at the expense of the applicant or contractor.